NOAA-J or NOAA-14(1995–2007) continued the third-generation operational, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series operated by the National Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA-J continued the series of Advanced TIROS-N (ATN) spacecraft begun with the launch of NOAA-8 (NOAA-E) in 1983. NOAA-J was in a morning equator-crossing orbit and was intended to replace the NOAA 12 (NOAA-D) as the prime morning spacecraft. The goal of the NOAA/NESS polar orbiting program was to provide output products used in meteorological prediction and warning, oceanographic and hydrologic services, and space environment monitoring. The polar orbiting system complemented the NOAA/NESS geostationary meteorological satellite program (GOES).
The NOAA-J instrument complement consisted of (1) the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/2 (AVHRR/2); (2) the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which consists of the Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU), the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2); (3) the Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking System (SARSAT); (4) the Space Environment Monitor (SEM), which consisted of the Total Energy Detector (TED) and the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED); (5) the French/CNES-provided ARGOS Data Collection and Location System (DCS); and (6) the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS), an experimental USAF test instrument. Most instruments became inoperational by February 2001. Only the omni-directional energetic ion detector remains operational as of January 2003. NOAA 14 was decommissioned on 23rd May 2007.